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汽车线束轻量化合金导线的应用

  汽车线束约占整车质量的5%,汽车线束由导线、包裹材料、接插件、卡钉、支架等零件组成,其中导线占比约为70%,导线的轻量化分析变得尤为重要。

  整(zheng)车(che)(che)线(xian)(xian)束从功(gong)能分类大致(zhi)可以分为3类:供电(dian)导(dao)(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)、搭铁导(dao)(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)和信(xin)号导(dao)(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian),本(ben)文重点分析0.13mm2合金导(dao)(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)替(ti)代传统信(xin)号线(xian)(xian)的(de)优(you)势及相关(guan)风险(xian)。对于信(xin)号导(dao)(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian),传统车(che)(che)型上J9九游会AG 在综合考虑导(dao)(dao)(dao)电(dian)性能、机(ji)械(xie)性能以及加工工艺(yi)上,会优(you)先选(xuan)择含铜(tong)(tong)量大于99.9%的(de)纯铜(tong)(tong),导(dao)(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)线(xian)(xian)径会优(you)先选(xuan)择0.35mm2或(huo)0.5mm2的(de)导(dao)(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian),但是从线(xian)(xian)束轻量化的(de)角(jiao)度还有非常大的(de)优(you)化空间。

  0.13mm2导线对比0.35mm2以(yi)及0.5mm2导线,如果依然是(shi)纯(chun)铜导线,导电性能上(shang)不会(hui)有太大(da)的(de)差异,但(dan)是(shi)因为(wei)铜丝较少机(ji)械(xie)性能相比会(hui)弱化很多(duo),在(zai)加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺上(shang),会(hui)存在(zai)非常(chang)大(da)的(de)风(feng)险(xian),在(zai)端子压(ya)接(jie)、超声波焊接(jie)等(deng)区域非常(chang)容易(yi)出现(xian)断丝、 压(ya)接(jie)不牢靠(kao)等(deng)问题,会(hui)极大(da)提(ti)高产品的(de)不合(he)格率(lv),所以(yi)对于 0.13mm2导线需(xu)要通过(guo)Sn、Mg、Ag等(deng)金(jin)属来提(ti)升其机(ji)械(xie)性能。

  在各(ge)大主机厂(chang)中,宝马车型使用(yong)CuAg较多,在大众集团、奔驰(chi)以及(ji)通用(yong)等OEM中有(you)CuMg和CuSn两种规格(ge)合(he)金(jin)(jin)导线,福(fu)特部分车型中有(you)使用(yong)CCS(铜包钢(gang)) 合(he)金(jin)(jin)。因为(wei)合(he)金(jin)(jin)金(jin)(jin)属的差异,CuSn的合(he)金(jin)(jin)价格(ge)会(hui)比(bi)CuMg便宜 10% 左右,CuAg价格(ge)比(bi)CuSn的价格(ge)贵。综上(shang)所述,本文重点(dian)分析(xi)的是0.13mm2的CuSn和CuMg合(he)金(jin)(jin)的轻量化应(ying)用(yong)。

 

  一、0.13mm2导线应用(yong)范(fan)围

  整(zheng)车(che)线束的布(bu)置区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)大致(zhi)可以(yi)分为(wei)3个部(bu)分:底(di)盘(pan)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)、发(fa)(fa)动机(ji)(ji)舱(cang)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)和内(nei)舱(cang)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)。以(yi)传统燃油(you)车(che)为(wei)例,发(fa)(fa)动机(ji)(ji)舱(cang)环(huan)境最为(wei)恶劣,底(di)盘(pan)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)次之(zhi),内(nei)舱(cang)相对环(huan)境最佳且多为(wei)静态(tai)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)。对于0.13mm2导线的推广(guang)和应用,优先建议在内(nei)舱(cang)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)使(shi)用,生产工(gong)艺上也只需(xu)考虑端子选型和超声波焊(han)接要(yao)求,而在底(di)盘(pan)和发(fa)(fa)动机(ji)(ji)舱(cang)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu),还需(xu)要(yao)额外考虑防水防尘以(yi)及运动区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)的动态(tai)使(shi)用要(yao)求,建议在供应商设备投入(ru)和整(zheng)车(che)试验较完善的情况下(xia),再逐步往底(di)盘(pan)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)和发(fa)(fa)动机(ji)(ji)舱(cang)区(qu)域(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)推广(guang)使(shi)用。

  在(zai)整车的震动(dong)区(qu)域(yu)应(ying)用(yong)合金导线(xian)时,建(jian)议在(zai)样(yang)车阶段(duan)做振动(dong)试(shi)验以验证导线(xian)的机械强度,避免(mian)后续跑车或者高低温环(huan)境下(xia)导线(xian)断(duan)裂(lie)的情(qing)况。

  二、0.13mm2合金导线质量占比

  在传(chuan)统(tong)车型中(zhong)(zhong),信号(hao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)大(da)多(duo)使(shi)用(yong)0.35mm2和(he)0.5mm2的(de)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),其质量分(fen)(fen)别是4.5kg /km、6.5kg/km,而0.13mm2的(de)质量仅有2.0kg/km(0.13mm2纯铜(tong)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)合金(jin)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)质量近似),应(ying)用(yong)0.13mm2对(dui)于(yu)信号(hao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)质量较(jiao)少(shao)可以达(da)到55%~69%。整(zheng)车低压线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)束(shu)的(de)信号(hao)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)大(da)致(zhi)可以分(fen)(fen)为Lin、CAN、Ethernet、LVDS等,其中(zhong)(zhong)Lin和(he)CAN导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)用(yong)量居多(duo),Ethernet、LVDS等是半(ban)成品导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)且价(jia)格(ge)比较(jiao)高,在整(zheng)车应(ying)用(yong)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)比例相对(dui)较(jiao)小(xiao)。以某(mou)品牌(pai)新能源纯电(dian)动SUV为例,整(zheng)车Lin网络使(shi)用(yong)的(de)全部(bu)(bu)是0.35mm2导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),用(yong)量大(da)约为80m,导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)铜(tong)重约为0.36kg,CAN网络使(shi)用(yong)的(de)全部(bu)(bu)是0.35mm2导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),用(yong)量大(da)致(zhi)为120m,导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)铜(tong)重大(da)致(zhi)为0.54kg,如果将上(shang)述(shu)所(suo)有导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)都(dou)有优(you)化为0.13mm2导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)束(shu)铜(tong)重将减少(shao)0.5kg。

  高度复杂的(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)子电(dian)气架构(gou)导(dao)致(zhi)今天整(zheng)个汽(qi)车构(gou)造复杂,成(cheng)本也(ye)非(fei)常高。甚至(zhi)汽(qi)车的(de)(de)(de)(de)不安全性都息息相关。在(zai)可预期的(de)(de)(de)(de)未(wei)来智(zhi)能(neng)(neng)化(hua)普及(ji)之后,域(yu)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)对于(yu)数(shu)据(ju)传输的(de)(de)(de)(de)要求会将下(xia)一(yi)代汽(qi)车完全以太网化(hua),优化(hua)执(zhi)行器(qi)、传感器(qi)和控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)线(xian)束(shu)连接(jie),减少线(xian)束(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)长度和用量。其(qi)中(zhong)以特斯(si)拉为代表的(de)(de)(de)(de)新能(neng)(neng)源纯电(dian)动车,通过集(ji)成(cheng)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)做法,推广使用Zone Control区域(yu)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)概念(nian),减少了功能(neng)(neng)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)和执(zhi)行器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)量,优化(hua)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)和执(zhi)行器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)连接(jie),整(zheng)车导(dao)线(xian)用量会剧减,线(xian)束(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)本大幅降(jiang)低且整(zheng)车的(de)(de)(de)(de)导(dao)线(xian)长度在(zai)新一(yi)代的(de)(de)(de)(de)Model Y车型上(shang)只(zhi)有约(yue)2400m,以大众B级车为例(li),整(zheng)车的(de)(de)(de)(de)导(dao)线(xian)长度约(yue)为5000m,C级车线(xian)束(shu)长度高达6000m,导(dao)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)轻量化(hua)成(cheng)果显而易(yi)见。图(tu)1是博世划分(fen)的(de)(de)(de)(de)汽(qi)车电(dian)子电(dian)气架构(gou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)演进趋势。

  图1 电(dian)子电(dian)器(qi)架构的(de)演进趋(qu)势图

  在这张(zhang)趋势图中能(neng)看出domain control(域控制器(qi)(qi))的变化,通(tong)过设(she)立多个主(zhu)(zhu)节点(dian)(dian)、各(ge)个主(zhu)(zhu)节点(dian)(dian)之间(jian)用以太网传(chuan)(chuan)输来解决大带宽的需求,而分布的控制器(qi)(qi)只需要收(shou)集对应(ying)执(zhi)行器(qi)(qi)、传(chuan)(chuan)感器(qi)(qi)的信(xin)号然后(hou)在主(zhu)(zhu)节点(dian)(dian)之间(jian)传(chuan)(chuan)输,能(neng)大量(liang)减少两(liang)两(liang)之间(jian)的通(tong)信(xin),甚至(zhi)可以完全取代传(chuan)(chuan)统(tong)的CAN网络,比传(chuan)(chuan)统(tong)的CAN网络能(neng)节省很(hen)多导线(xian),轻量(liang)化效(xiao)果(guo)同样效(xiao)果(guo)卓著(zhu)。

  三、0.13mm2导线(xian)机械强度(du)

  相比0.35mm2的(de)纯铜导(dao)线(xian),CuSn合金(jin)导(dao)线(xian)的(de)抗(kang)拉(la)(la)(la)强(qiang)(qiang)度是(shi)110N,拉(la)(la)(la)伸强(qiang)(qiang)度约为(wei)620N/mm2,而CuMg合金(jin)导(dao)线(xian)的(de)抗(kang)拉(la)(la)(la)强(qiang)(qiang)度是(shi)118N,拉(la)(la)(la)伸强(qiang)(qiang)度约为(wei)670N/mm2,0.35mm2的(de)纯铜导(dao)线(xian)抗(kang)拉(la)(la)(la)强(qiang)(qiang)度仅(jin)为(wei)75N,拉(la)(la)(la)伸强(qiang)(qiang)度约为(wei)670N/mm2,显而易见,合金(jin)导(dao)线(xian)的(de)机械强(qiang)(qiang)度要明显优(you)于纯铜导(dao)线(xian)。

  在弯曲(qu)测试方面CuSn和CuMg合(he)金导(dao)线(xian)的(de)性能也是(shi)优(you)于(yu)0.35mm2的(de)纯铜(tong)导(dao)线(xian),如图(tu)2所(suo)示。

 

  在整车应用中,因(yin)为存在很多震(zhen)动(dong)区域,比如门铰链(lian)(lian)区域、发动(dong)机(ji)舱震(zhen)动(dong)区域等,在2013年曾发生一起某品牌小型SUV线束(shu)断(duan)裂(lie)(lie)事故(gu),事故(gu)描述为:驾驶座(zuo)窗户升(sheng)降(jiang)失(shi)灵,检查后确认左前门线束(shu)车门铰链(lian)(lian)处(chu)电线塑(su)胶皮老化(hua)开裂(lie)(lie)n根、一根断(duan)裂(lie)(lie)(线束(shu)完全接上后故(gu)障消除)。震(zhen)动(dong)区域无疑(yi)对线束(shu)的性(xing)能会(hui)造(zao)成影响,尤其如果在高温环境下(xia),甚至会(hui)出现断(duan)裂(lie)(lie);在极端低温环境下(xia),线束(shu)也会(hui)因(yin)为冰晶冻结出现断(duan)裂(lie)(lie)现象。

  对于0.13mm2的合(he)金(jin)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)在(zai)高温(wen)环境以及震动区(qu)域的使用可靠性建议在(zai)样车(che)阶段做(zuo)震动实(shi)验、跑车(che)实(shi)验来验证(zheng)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)是否安全。

  四(si)、0.13mm2合金导线加工(gong)工(gong)艺(yi)

  0.13mm2合(he)金导(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)铜丝数量和(he)(he)0.35mm2的(de)(de)(de)导(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)是一致的(de)(de)(de),但是因为线(xian)(xian)(xian)径差异,0.13mm2合(he)金导(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)单根(gen)铜丝线(xian)(xian)(xian)径会小(xiao)很(hen)多,所以对于(yu)导(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)剥(bo)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)(he)端(duan)子压接有(you)非常高的(de)(de)(de)要求,在人工剥(bo)线(xian)(xian)(xian)或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)设(she)备(bei)(bei)开线(xian)(xian)(xian)时(shi),极易出(chu)现(xian)(xian)剥(bo)断铜丝的(de)(de)(de)现(xian)(xian)象,这样(yang)(yang)会导(dao)致端(duan)子压接不(bu)合(he)格(ge),如果侥幸流入市(shi)场,会造成对应功能不(bu)稳定(ding)(ding)或(huo)者(zhe)(zhe)故障(zhang)等问(wen)题(ti)。所以对于(yu)0.13mm2合(he)金导(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)绝对不(bu)允(yun)许(xu)单根(gen)铜丝断裂问(wen)题(ti),线(xian)(xian)(xian)束供(gong)应商(shang)在生产(chan)阶段一定(ding)(ding)要有(you)检(jian)测手段。目前Komax提供(gong)的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)开线(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)(he)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)压接设(she)备(bei)(bei)中有(you)电(dian)容刀头可以对断线(xian)(xian)(xian)进(jin)行(xing)检(jian)测,在设(she)备(bei)(bei)操作过程中检(jian)测到的(de)(de)(de)断线(xian)(xian)(xian)截(jie)面,会自(zi)动(dong)(dong)截(jie)断一定(ding)(ding)长度的(de)(de)(de)导(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian),再继续进(jin)行(xing)剥(bo)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)(he)压接,这样(yang)(yang)既保(bao)证了导(dao)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)品质,设(she)备(bei)(bei)也依然可以正常运行(xing)。

  五、0.13mm2导线(xian)导电性能

  以(yi)(yi)裸铜(tong)(tong)(tong)线(xian)(xian)的导(dao)(dao)电(dian)(dian)率作(zuo)为(wei)基准的话,裸铜(tong)(tong)(tong)线(xian)(xian)的含铜(tong)(tong)(tong)量大约(yue)是(shi)99.9%,导(dao)(dao)电(dian)(dian)率为(wei)100%,在(zai)常(chang)温20℃环境(jing)下,导(dao)(dao)电(dian)(dian)性≥58.58mΩ/mm2;而在(zai)铜(tong)(tong)(tong)镁合(he)(he)金(jin)(jin)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)中(zhong),Mg的含量约(yue)在(zai)0.14%~0.26%,CuMg合(he)(he)金(jin)(jin)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)的导(dao)(dao)电(dian)(dian)性≥44mΩ/mm2,导(dao)(dao)电(dian)(dian)率约(yue)为(wei)75%。在(zai)铜(tong)(tong)(tong)锡合(he)(he)金(jin)(jin)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)中(zhong),Sn的含量约(yue)在(zai)0.25%~0.35%,CuSN合(he)(he)金(jin)(jin)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)的导(dao)(dao)电(dian)(dian)性≥42mΩ/mm2,导(dao)(dao)电(dian)(dian)率约(yue)为(wei)72%。以(yi)(yi)0.35mm2的裸铜(tong)(tong)(tong)线(xian)(xian)为(wei)例,其导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)电(dian)(dian)阻值(zhi)约(yue)为(wei)54.4Ω/km,CuSn和CuMg合(he)(he)金(jin)(jin)的电(dian)(dian)阻值(zhi)约(yue)为(wei)170Ω/km,在(zai)汽车线(xian)(xian)束中(zhong),因(yin)为(wei)单根信号(hao)(hao)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)的回路长度一(yi)般不会超过5m,最长大约(yue)是(shi)从由(you)行李厢经过仪表到BCM或者网关,所以(yi)(yi)即便是(shi)0.13mm2的合(he)(he)金(jin)(jin)导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian),其导(dao)(dao)线(xian)(xian)电(dian)(dian)阻也(ye)是(shi)非常(chang)的小,不会对信号(hao)(hao)产生(sheng)影响。

  通常导线(xian)的(de)电阻(zu)随温度升高而增加,在整(zheng)车环(huan)境(jing)中,尤其对(dui)于传(chuan)统燃(ran)油车型来说,发动机舱(cang)因(yin)为有发动机环(huan)境(jing)非常恶劣,环(huan)境(jing)温度也非常高,对(dui)于导线(xian)性(xing)能有一定影响。对(dui)于0.13mm2合金导线(xian)的(de)推广使用,建(jian)议从内(nei)舱(cang)开始。

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